If I smash your hard disk right now, how much data will you lose?

by Yuan Xu 052505
You need to backup you data!!!

Back up media Types

Common Data Backup Media Types


Media Type Typical Capacity/ea Pros Cons
USB 64Mb to 1 Gb Plug and Play Still expensive and not quite compatible with some older linux kernel
CR-R/-RW 700Mb Very inexpensive and all most all computers have it Just not enough capacity to backup all your data
DVD-R/+R/-RW/+RW 4.7Gb Lots of capacity per disk and inexpensive Computer must have DVD drive to read/write and still lots of problems with linux OS
Tape Drives 8Gb to 100Gb Very high capacity Very expensive to administer and someone has to remember to do it. Restore the backup is huge headache
External hard disks 250 Gb to unlimited Gb Easy to do, fast and inexpensive You might need anther backup to backup your  backups and is shared by all users

Using of USB disks to perform your daily data backups
Bus 005 Device 001: ID 0000:0000
Bus 004 Device 001: ID 0000:0000
Bus 004 Device 002: ID 413c:3200 Dell Computer Corp.
Bus 004 Device 003: ID 051d:0002 American Power Conversion Back-UPS Pro 500
Bus 003 Device 001: ID 0000:0000
Bus 002 Device 001: ID 0000:0000
Bus 002 Device 002: ID 413c:1002 Dell Computer Corp.
Bus 002 Device 003: ID 413c:2002 Dell Computer Corp.
Bus 001 Device 001: ID 0000:0000
Bus 001 Device 005: ID 05dc:0080 Lexar Media, Inc.
Which means your machine has USB drives and you can see your USB disk at
Bus 001 Device 005: ID 05dc:0080 has a Lexar Media USB drive.
After successful recognition of your USB drive, you'll want to create a directory where your USB drive will be mounted.
PS: For some older systems you might not see your USB disk that is already mounted
$dmesg | grep -i "SCSI device"

The dmesg command will show you the kernel boot messages which may contain USB devices info if the USB device modules are loaded and you will see something like:
SCSI device sdc: 251904 512-byte hdwr sectors (129 MB)
SCSI device sdc: 251904 512-byte hdwr sectors (129 MB)
SCSI device sdc: 251904 512-byte hdwr sectors (129 MB)
SCSI device sdc: 251904 512-byte hdwr sectors (129 MB)
which means, you can see your USB disk and the size of disk as well as the device file that can be used to mount.

If you see messages such as permission denied, file/directory not found etc, ask your system administrator to fix it.
The advantage of using USB disk is that you can use it just as a additional hard disk.

Use Laser disks to back up your data

What media do you use? and got confused?

My suggestions:
USB/CD-RW (for daily routine backups)
DVD-RW/+RW (for monthly or even longer period)
CD-R, DVD-R/+R (for long term storage of your very large data sets)

CD standard:

DVD Standards

There is a standards war going strong in the recordable DVD market, and if you buy a DVD burner,
then you get to choose sides. Even if you buy a burner that supports more than one standard,
you'll eventually have to pick one type of recordable disc or another to back up your data.

There are a lot of different DVD burner and media types,
but for the purposes of backing up data,
there are just three types of recordable DVD
standards that you need to know about:

  • the "plus" formats (DVD+R, DVD+RW)
  • the "minus" formats (DVD-R, DVD-RW
DVD-R/RW was developed by Pioneer. Based on CD-RW technology supported by the DVD Forum, an industry wide group of hardware and software developers, and computer peripheral manufacturers. The DVD-R format has been standardized in ECMA-279 by the Forum,  but this is a private standard, not an 'industry' ISO standard like the CD-R/RW Red Book or Orange Book standard.

is also based on CD-RW technology. DVD+R/RW is supported by Sony, Philips, HP, Dell, Ricoh, Yamaha, and others, and has recently been endorsed by Microsoft. DVD+R/RW is not supported by the DVD Forum, but the Forum has no power to set industry standards, so it becomes a market-driven issue.

Check if your kernel can recognize any CD-R/RW, DVD-R/WR, DVD+R/RW burners
Use command cdrecord or dvdrecord. The man page is listed here
cdrecord -scanbus | grep CD
cdrecord -scanbus | grep DVD

If you see something like:
5,0,0   500) 'SAMSUNG ' 'CD-R/RW SW-252S ' 'R902' Removable CD-ROM
5,1,0   501) 'HL-DT-ST' 'DVD+RW GRA-4120B' 'F114' Removable CD-ROM
It means you have a CD burner and DVD burner installed on your linux box and configured by kernel.

Check what kind of CD, DVD writers are supported by your kernel run cdrecord command:

dvdrecord driver=help
and you will see a lists of drivers supported
Driver types:
mmc_cd_dvd                  generic SCSI-3/mmc CD/DVD driver (checks media)
mmc_cdr                     generic SCSI-3/mmc CD-R driver
mmc_mdvd                    generic SCSI-3/mmc DVD-R(W) driver
mmc_cdr_sony                generic SCSI-3/mmc CD-R driver (Sony 928 variant)
mmc_cd                      generic SCSI-3/mmc CD driver
scsi2_cd                    generic SCSI-2 CD driver
philips_cdd521_old          driver for Philips old CDD-521
philips_dumb                driver for Philips CDD-521 with pessimistic assumptions
philips_cdd521              driver for Philips CDD-521
philips_cdd522              driver for Philips CDD-522
tyuden_ew50                 driver for Taiyo Yuden EW-50
kodak_pcd_600               driver for Kodak PCD-600
pioneer_dws114x             driver for Pioneer DW-S114X
plasmon_rf4100              driver for Plasmon RF 4100
yamaha_cdr100               driver for Yamaha CDR-100 / CDR-102
ricoh_ro1060c               driver for Ricoh RO-1060C
ricoh_ro1420c               driver for Ricoh RO-1420C
sony_cdu924                 driver for Sony CDU-924
teac_cdr50                  driver for Teac CD-R50S, Teac CD-R55S, JVC XR-W2010, Pinnacle RCD-5020
cdr_simul                   simulation CD-R driver for timing/speed tests
dvd_simul                   simulation DVD-R driver for timing/speed tests

Check what kind of cdrecord options you may have run cdrecord command:

dvdrecord -help click here

1)    Using of CD-R disks to store your data backups
2)    Using of CD-RW disks to back up your data
3) CD-RW disk format options:
cdrecord blank=help
Blanking options:
        all             blank the entire disk
        disc            blank the entire disk
        disk            blank the entire disk
        fast            minimally blank the entire disk (PMA, TOC, pregap)
        minimal         minimally blank the entire disk (PMA, TOC, pregap)
        track           blank a track
        unreserve       unreserve a track
        trtail          blank a track tail
        unclose         unclose last session
        session         blank last session

3) Examples of using cdrecord for using CD-R/CD-RW

      Writing data onto a CD-R or CD-RW disk If the overall speed of the system is sufficient and the structure of the filesystem is not too complex, cdrecord will run without creating an image of the ISO 9660 filesystem. Simply run the pipeline:
4) More about mkisofs
5) Writing data on DVD-R/-RW or DVD+R/+RW

6) Writing data on DVD-R/-RW or DVD+R/+RW using nerolinux
  1.      So far it works on gibbs(RH8.0) and bose(FC3)
  2.       Here is the user guide
  3.       Logon to gibbs or bose from your desktop linux
  4.       Type nero and then you are ready to burn
  5.       Both gibbs requires DVD+R/+RW type disks
  6.       Confused, problems or do not know how please click user guide
  7.       You have tried your best and still not working then let me try, but mostly it will not work either

7) Writing data on DVD-R/-RW or DVD+R/+RW on bose
  1. Go to Dr. Yes's office and insert a disk
  2. Logon to bose
  3. Type nautilus (best for DVD+R, DVD-R)
  4. A few mouse click then you are done
  5. You can also use nero  to do the same (best for DVD+R, DVD-R as well -RW/+RW)
  6. Make sure to check the data on the disk (put the disk into a PC CD/DVD driver to see it)
8) Format your CD-RW or DVD+RW/-RW on bose